Saturday, March 21, 2020
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Essays Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Paper Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Paper The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act or HIPAA is implemented in organizations belonging to the health care industry to secure electronic medical records and protect the privacy of patients. HIPAA was brought about by much-needed changes perceived in the field of health care with the emergence of the technology age. Since then, health care entities have adapted technologies that will assist them in keeping and storing medical records. Of course the benefits or advantages of technology in the field of health care are undeniable. Medical records stored electronically allow work efficiency and productivity, enhance transfer and storage of information within the health care network, and maximize quality services provided to patients. However, there will always be two sides of the story. Technology has also its disadvantages. Private information may be accessed by external parties and use it for malevolent intent. The design of a network or system run by technology is not flawless. It can be breached by illegally, with thousands of patient information used to falsify documents for profit or other deceitful reasons. Due to these perceived problems that health care organizations might encounter with their adaptation of technological tools, HIPAA provides guidelines or standards in securing electronic records and protecting patient privacy. Although most health care organizations have adapted the concept of HIPAA, statistics prove that most technological tools or systems utilized in health care organizations do not fulfill HIPAA guidelines and standards. Because of this, problems regarding health care organization compliance to HIPAA arise. Dr. Zachary Peterson continues to discuss the law framing the foundation of HIPAA. One particular law supporting the concepts of HIPAA is the necessity to employ information management within the health care organization. This privacy rule is fortified by the security rule which acts as a defense from external risks and threats that might jeopardize its integrity and accountability as an organization that promises patient information confidentiality. To realize these goals and objectives, HIPAA also necessitates the utilization of technological tools that allows accessibility to electronic records whenever needed, privacy and security of confidential information, and the validity or legitimacy of stored information or records. The laws and technology requirements aforementioned should be observed by health care organizations in order to exhibit full compliance with HIPAA. The article was picked out of all the HIPAA article results shown in the web search because it fulfills the requirement of currency of information. Aside from that, the article was well-developed and concise, presenting all important information in an organized fashion. The article does away with extraneous statements and expressions. The expertise of the writer in the field of systems security was persuasive enough to draw interest and evaluative purposes to the article. It ties up issues discussed in the course and outlines the importance of systems security in the field of health care. Furthermore, it provides a fresh perspective of how HIPAA is applied in real life situations as in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s field of industry. Although the article concisely discussed the concept of HIPAA and compliance requirements for health care organizations, it failed to discuss comprehensively the major reasons why full compliance of all health care entities is unsuccessful, effects of non-compliance to HIPAA, and recommendations, in an expertÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, on how problems regarding non-compliance should be addressed in order to ensure patient information privacy and maintain integrity and accountability as a reputable health care organization. The article could have exceeded its limited coverage if the speaker addressed these issues. However, the article compensated for its weakness by exhibiting authority, accuracy, objectivity, and currency. This article was published on March 13 this year, eliminating doubts of out-of-date content that fails to provide real time information applicable to current trends and situations in the field of health care. It was published by a CEO of Netspective, but the content of the article was written by Dr. Zachary Peterson. He earned degrees in John Hopkins University for Computer Science and Security Informatics. At present, Dr. Peterson is a Senior Security Analyst. He works for an organization, the Independent Security Evaluators (ISE) that provides information regarding computer security. Dr. Peterson presented the content of the article objectively. He discussed HIPAA, laws, and required technologies clearly, citing both advantages and disadvantages of technology when applied within the context of health care organizations. Although explanations were brief, Dr. Peterson presented all relevant topics that solidify full answers to queries regarding HIPAA, security rule, technology, laws, and compliance. The accuracy of information presented by Dr. Peterson may be tied up with his experience in learning computer systems and informatics in graduate school as well as his experiences as a Senior Security Analyst in ISE. ISE works closely with reputable organizations such as MasterCard and WebEx, to name a few. Since the concepts of security systems have been applied in his field of industry, Dr. Peterson was able to provide accurate information regarding the aforementioned topics. ARTICLE REFERENCE Shah, S. N., (2008), Guest Article: IT Security and Record Management in Healthcare. Retrieved September 10, 2008, from The Healthcare IT Guy. Website: healthcareguy.com/index.php/archives/417
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Convert Decimal Degrees into Degrees, Minutes, Seconds When looking at maps and surveys, youll sometimesÃ find degrees given in decimal degrees (121.135 degrees) instead of the more common degrees, minutes, and seconds (121 degrees, 8 minutes, and 6 seconds). Its easy to convert from a decimal to the sexagesimal system if, for example, you need to combine data from maps that are calculated in two different systems. Or maybe youve done some math with some data in decimal degrees format and need to convert back to degrees, minutes, and seconds to plot the coordinates on a map. When you use GPS systems, for example when geocaching, you should be able to switch between the different coordinate systems on your device.Ã Heres How to Do the Conversion There are online calculators, but its not that tough to do the calculation from decimal degrees to degrees, minutes, and seconds by hand when needed; you start by breaking down your existing figure.Ã The whole units of degrees will remain the same (e.g., if your figure is 121.135 degrees longitude, start with 121 degrees).Multiply the decimal portion of the figure by 60 (e.g., .135 * 60 8.1).The whole number becomes the minutes (8).Take the remaining decimal and multiply it by 60Ã (e.g., .1 * 60 6).The resulting number becomes the seconds (6 seconds). Seconds can remain as a decimal if needed.Take your three sets of numbers and put them together, (e.g., 121Ã °86 longitude would be equivalent to 121.135 degrees longitude). FYI After you have degrees, minutes, and seconds, its often easier to find your location on most maps (especially topographic maps).Though there are 360 degrees in a circle, each degree is divided into 60 minutes, and each minute is divided into 60 seconds.A degree is 70 miles (113 km), a minute 1.2 miles (1.9 km), and a second is .02 miles, or 106 feet (32Ã m).Ã Use a negative sign before figures in the Southern Hemisphere and in the Western Hemisphere.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Humanistic Era Reflection Paper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1
Humanistic Era Reflection Paper - Assignment Example With the rise of workers unrest several acts were legislated to cater for the needs of the workers. Some of the acts enacted include the Labor-Management Relations Act and National Labor Relations Act. The period was also characterized with the rise of some management theories. Although these theories were formulated to ease the working environment, majority continued to work in deplorable conditions making it difficult to apply participatory approach towards management (Huston and Marquis, 2008). The act is also known as the Taft-Hartley Act. The act was legislated in the 1930s and it was meant to discourage unfair practices by employers. As union membership and power increased, the US federal government began to look into some of the labor practices. This was prompted by long and bitter strikes by workers especially coal mining and truck industry workers. Workers unrest in the 1940s led to a demand for legislation to restrict some of the activities of the labor unions. The aim of the Taft-Hartley Act is to bring cohesion between the union power and the management authority. Some of the unfair labor practices listed in the act includes; harassment of non-union members, charging excessive membership fees, refusal to bargain with management in good faith and employing various means of oppression against employers. The Taft-Hartley Act gives management the right in organizing union campaigns. The management is allowed to highlight for the employee the advantages and disadvantages of certain union memberships as long as the information given is correct. The act gives the President of the United States of America the power to prevent or call off a strike through a temporary court injunction, if the strike endangers the national health and safety. The act also allows the states to enact laws that ensure employees work in unionized firms without the need to join the unions (Hughes, Kapoor and Pride, 2009). It
Monday, February 3, 2020
MarketingProject-Kuwait - Research Paper Example Additionally, the low average utilization of aircrafts, gives them a higher cost per every seat mile, this is different from Jazeera Air, which has cut its fleet and uses its aircrafts extensively (Shaw 35). This paper discusses how RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s limited airport transportation will work in the Middle East where the airports are concentrated. Consumers across the globe have continued to turn towards the internet for their various travel needs. This involves research on trips, comparison of prices, shopping for flights and booking. Consumers have found this convenient and vital to their business and personal travel needs. Looking across the markets with increased focus on the Middle East market, there are various emerging demographic trends that drive growth across the B2C travel industry. Understanding this trend is vital for Ryanair in order to create a strong presence online and increase market share. One demographic group, which would fly Ryanair is the age group from twenty fiv e to thirty four. This is because these are the most likely to prefer low cost carriers, as they have just started earning and would be more willing to forfeit the comfort and luxury of a traditional airline for the cost saving measures of a low cost carrier like Ryanair. People from thirty five to forty four would also consider flying Ryanair because of its cost cutting. This is generated by the idea that they have most likely had increased responsibilities. However, it should be noted that these are those people in the middle to low income earning bracket. Those over sixty-five were the least willing to consider flying Ryanair. Another demographic, which would fly Ryanair would be students studying abroad or travelling for study trips. This would be informed by the fact that they will be doing this on funds from the government or school. However, there was a disparity with the sexes, with one woman claiming that low cost carriers did not provide enough segregation for women, and s ince she preferred to remove her booking on the flight, she would be uncomfortable. Another demographic that would most certainly be willing to fly Ryanair for its low cost measures is tourist groups. Given that most claimed to be travelling on a budget that they had been saving for a while. For business people, the most receptive to Ryanair travel were those in supervisory roles or junior management positions, in their companies. Those in middle management roles were also receptive of the idea of a low cost carrier. However, those in professional roles or senior management are least interested in a low cost carrier like Ryanair. Finally, KuwaitiÃ¢â¬â¢s travelling to Europe to experience leisure or visit relatives and friends are likely to fly Ryanair for its low cost. However, business people were least interested in using a low cost carrier like Ryanair, despite the fact that it would save their organization money. Clients who are concerned about the environment could elect to f ly low cost carriers since the reduced weight of the plane leads to a reduction in fuel used by the plane (Shaw 38). These airlines also offer a fairly simpler scheme for fares, for example, charging tickets for one way at half the price of round trips. This encourages clients to choose it. Since these carriers fly to less congested and smaller secondary airports during off-peak hours to avoid delays by traffic, they offer an
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Implementing child rights Introduction One basic human rights principle laid down in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 is that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights (Article 1 UDHR). However, specifically vulnerable groups such as women, indigenous people, and children have been assigned special protection by the UN legal framework (Henry J. Steiner P. Alston, 2000). The UN Convention for the Rights of the Child, 1989 remind us that children, whilst retaining their entitlement to the full range of human rights, are often marginalised or excluded, and represent a special case required additional safeguards (Defence for Children International (ed), 1995). Therefore, the Committee on the Rights of the Child have also adopted about twelve General Comments (in addition to two Optional Protocols) guiding States on specific issues such as HIV/AIDS, the aims of education etc (Committee on the Rights of Child-General Comments). The Committee in 2005 adopted Ã¢â¬Å"General Comment 7 (GC7) on Implementing Child Rights in Early ChildhoodÃ¢â¬ (The Committee General Comment 7 of 2005). GC7 recognises that in implementing the UNCROC States parties have often overlooked young children as rights holders (GC7 para.3). The Comment seeks to redress this by clarifying State obligations for UNCROC implementation with respect to all children Ã¢â¬Å"below the age of 8Ã¢â¬ (GC7 para.4). The UNCROC regards young children as active meaning makers with Ã¢â¬Å"evolving capacitiesÃ¢â¬ (Art. 5) requiring age-appropriate guidance and support whom, both as individuals and as a constituency, have a voice which must be given due consideration. Parents/Caregivers and States are reminded to balance control and guidance with respect to evolving capacities of the young child, and of the obligation to facilitate genuine participation of young children in the process affecting their development (The Committee General Comment 7, 2005). In this 21st century, when we Australians are busy counting our economic and political success both at national and international level, still is much needed to be done to improve the status of children in Australia for the coming future (Nyland, 1999). In this essay, I have tried to discuss the role of early childhood settings in enacting and promoting the children rights such as participation, protection and provision and in making these rights available to Australian children. Childrens Rights: Setting Standards Legal conceptions of children The adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child marked a fundamental shift away from past conceptions of children and childhood to a new one. Until then, the law had seen a child as property the property of the father to be dealt with and disposed of as he saw fit (Hart et al, 1991). However a conceptual shift took place during the 19th century, based on the perception of children as vulnerable and so in need of protection from poverty, the voices of industrialization, immigration and urban living. In addition, to being considered property, the child began to be considered as a resource to society (Hart et al, 1991). The human rights movement of the 20th century, previously focused for adult rights was extended to children (Hart et al, 1991) though children were still seen as vulnerable and in need of protection but this status was subsumed in a broader understanding of children as full human beings with all the human rights and fundamental freedoms that all human beings have. Their need for protection was transformed into a right to protection. They had a right to be free from exploitation, abuse and neglect of any kind. Seeing children as rights-holders (The Committee GC7, 2005) had implications beyond child protection, however. It meant that, like all human beings, they were also entitled to freedom of speech, freedom of religion and belief, freedom of association, the right to education and to the highest attainable standard of health, and so on. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is the universal statement of this new conception of rights-holders. The United Nations General Assembly on Nov 20, 1989 adopted the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCROC). In 1990 Australia ratified the UNCROC and to date 191 countries have ratified the Convention, while US and Somalia have become signatories (Berenice Nyland, 1999). The Convention is considered to the most comprehensive and complete international legal document on childrens rights concerning their protection development and welfare (P. Alston, 1991). The Convention deals with the child-specific needs and rights. It requires that states act in the best interests of the child. The Conventions objective is to protect children from discrimination, neglect and abuse and serves as both a rallying point and a useful tool for civil society and individual people, working to protect and promote childrens rights (Berenice Nyland, 1999). In many ways, it is an innovative instrument. Categories of rights under the UNCROC Greenwood suggests that the rights set out in the Convention fall into three categories (Module 1. Topic 2: The Convention on the Rights of the Child); Provision: this category includes the right to posses, receive or have access to the right to life (Art. 6), a name and a nationality (Art. 7), health care (Art. 24), education (Art. 28), adequate rest and play (Art. 31), special care for disabled children (Art. 23), an adequate standard of living (Art. 27), care after abuse (Art. 39), and respect for the cultures from which the children come (Art. 30). Protection: it grouped the right to be shielded from harmful acts and practices such as; separation from parents (Art. 9), sexual exploitation (Art. 34), and physical abuse and neglect (Art. 19). Participation: this class encompasses the right to be heard in discussion affecting the childs life so that the child has freedom of expression (Art. 13), freedom of thought and religion (Art. 14), and the right to be heard in court (Art. 12). The UNCROC, 1989 formally-agreed standards cover: provision rights (to necessary, not luxury, goods services and resources); protection rights (from neglect, abuse, exploitation and discrimination); and participation rights, when children are respected as active members of their family, community and society, as contributors from their first years (Alderson, P. 2000). The effect of the Convention for Children in Australia Since the ratification of the UNCROC in 1999 by Australia till 2010, we can say that the Convention has realised neither the brightest hopes of its supporters nor the most dire fears of its opponents (Butler, B., 1993). The ratification of an international instrument by Australia, such as the Convention, does not ipso facto make that instrument part of domestic law hence the UNCROC is not part of Australian domestic law. Therefore, it has not revolutionised public policy making for children, nevertheless it has led to many very significant initiatives and reforms (Module 1. Is the Convention enforceable, p 29). It has provided a new basis for examining the situation and treatment of children, bringing a rights focus to what previously were seen as purely welfare issues. The effect of this is that the Convention has been declared an international instrument relating to human rights and freedoms for the purpose of Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986 (Cth) (Module 1. Is the Convention enforceable, p 29). Consequently, the Convention has provided the legal and conceptual basis for the establishment of childrens commissioners in most Australian jurisdictions. Childrens rights and early childhood settings Early childhood, the period from birth to 6-8 years, is a significant and unique time in the life of every individual. Every child needs and has the right to positive experiences in early childhood. As with every other phase in life, positive supports and adequate resources are necessary for meaningful development. In their everyday lives, children largely stay within and relate to three settings their home, schools and recreational institutions (Rasmusen, K. 2004). These environments have created by adults therefore quality early childhood practice is built upon the unique role of the adult. The competencies, qualifications, dispositions and experience of adults, in addition to their capacity to reflect upon their role, are essential in supporting and ensuring quality experiences for each child (Wyatt, S., 2004). This demanding and central role in the life of the young child needs to be appropriately resourced, supported, and valued. Therefore, quality early childhood care and education must value and support the role of parents (Thorpe, R., Thomson, J., 2003). Open, honest and respectful partnership with parents is essential in promoting the best interests of the child. Mutual partnership contributes to establishing harmony and continuity between the diverse environments the child experienc es in the early years. The development of connections and interactions between the early childhood setting, parents, the extended family and the wider community also adds to the enrichment of early childhood experiences by reflecting the environment in which the child lives and grows (Thorpe, R., Thomson, J., 2003). Basing early childhood services on childrens rights Childrens rights are relevant to early childhood education and care. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is directed towards the well-being of every child and the full development of every child to her or his full potential (Butler, B., 1993). Early childhood education and care shares that direction and commitment. The Convention states that the first objective of education is Ã¢â¬Å"the development of the childs personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potentialÃ¢â¬ (Art. 29 (1)). Early childhood education and care contributes to the full personal development of children. Early childhood institutions contribute to implementation of the requirements of the Convention in relation to the childs right to the highest attainable standard of health care (Art. 24), the right to education (Art. 28), the right to protection from exploitation, abuse and neglect (Art. 19), the right to play and recreational activities Ã¢â¬Å"appropriate to the age of the childÃ¢â¬ and to participate in cultural life (Art. 31). Institutions also have particular regard for the specific needs and rights of particular groups of children specified in the Convention: refugee and asylum seeker children (Art. 22), children with disability (Art. 24), children of ethnic and religious minorities and indigenous children (Art. 30), children placed in alternative care (Art. 20), children who are the victims of abuse and neglect (Art. 39) (Alderson, P., 2000). In Australia, the importance of childrens rights to early childhood care and education is recognised in many of the key documents that express the values and goals of the sector. The first commitment to children in its Code of Ethics is to act in the best interests of the child and the second commitment is a more general one, to Ã¢â¬Å"respect the rights of children as enshrined in the UNCROC and commit to advocating for these rightsÃ¢â¬ (ECA Code of Ethics, 1990). Its policy positions are based on principles that Ã¢â¬Å"reflect adherence and commitment toÃ¢â¬ the Convention on the Rights of the Child (ECA position statement consulting with young children). They are expressed in rights terms: Ã¢â¬Å"All children have the right to access and participate in early childhood programs and servicesÃ¢â¬ (Inclusion of Children). Childrens rights issues for early childhood institutions Early childhood education and care institutions address childrens immediate needs and well-being, that is, childrens lives as children (Rasmusen, K. 2004). They provide children with opportunities for learning, play and socialisation. They provide the foundations for literacy, numeracy, later learning, and future life opportunities. They also focus for addressing the rights of disadvantage and particular groups of children such as indigenous children, refugee and immigrant children, children with disabilities, children from poor families. The way childrens rights are interpreted and acted upon in early childhood institutions it has some cultural/social implications (Berenice Nyland, 1999). For example, when children interact in the complex cultural environment of a day care setting that can provides us with insights into how they construct their views of the world and culture. Therefore as adults we should observe children very closely in order to understand what they are trying to tell us about their surroundings. Mostly caregivers based children developmental activities on observed activities of children focusing mainly on the individual child and areas of development and divide children into developmental areas which is a problem because one area or dimension can not exist by itself. Therefore the practitioners should be motivated to plan for the different areas of development and therefore move away from play-based curriculum since tasks are developed to aid a particular area of development and overlook or neglect the ideal of whole child (Nyland, 1999). Another constraint of current mode of recording children behavioural observation is that we record observed behaviour meaning something already has been done by a child (Nyland, 1999) so we look at the child of yesterday and not at the child potential (Vygotsky) in upcoming future. In a child care centre caregivers can create an environment focusing to strengthen child development in a more holistic way which will give to the caregivers a better understanding of the physical and social settings of children from where they belong. In the child care centre the caregivers can also identify culturally regulated customs and can use it as a culturally niches (Nyland, 1999). The adult/caregivers role in these developmental niches/physical and social settings is one of scaffolding the child experiences (Valsiner, 1987) through an environment that is carefully considered in relation to three metaphorical zones (Cole, 1996). These metaphorical zones make up the developmental niche and consisted of three zones i.e. zone of free movement (ZFM), the zone of promoted activity (ZPA) and the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Valsiner, 1987). ZFM is understood as the childs access to the environment, objects, events and ways of acting (Cole, 1986). ZPA covers a childs particular action, or response which encouraged him/her to give by a more competent member of the culture or from the same physical environment (Nyland, 1999). But when the ZPA is matched to the childs present development state which guides further development then it is referred as ZPD (Cole, 1996). In early childhood setting the caregivers role is more important and dynamic since s/he can use the metaphorical zones as guide for designing and providing space, objects and interactions. The caregiver own role can be deliberately designed for enhancing the perceived developmental potential in an articulated cultured environment. The cultural activity where development is most likely to occur in a cultured environment is known as leading activity and such activities can be accomplished through manipulation for infants and spontaneous play for children (Bodrova Leong, 1996). For better understanding of the role of early childhood settings for the protection of children rights, Berenice Nyland (1999) in article Ã¢â¬Å"The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Using a concept of rights as a basis for practiceÃ¢â¬ , quoted a 20 minutes observation period took place in a day care centre between two babies of under two years, with no spoken language. Kallina started the play by putting a nappy on a doll. She was thoroughly engaged and her physical moments were free. She had mental picture of folded nappy because she tried many times to match reality with mental event representation. Another baby Claudia joined the play, took a doll and wrapped a nappy around it. Claudia just matched the nappy and made no effort to fold it or put it on the bottom half of the doll. Similarly Claudia found another undressed doll in the same place and take out a nappy from a nearby clean clothes basket and draped it around it. The observer was asked to put the n appies on to prevent them falling off. Claudia then took a plastic play gym from an immobile baby and placed it to the book corner. She then placed the dolls underneath the play gym, so they Ã¢â¬Ëcould play. The role of caregiver in this exercise is the childrens actions affirmed the suitability of the available environment created by the caregiver relating to the freedom of moments (ZFM) for the babies and they had access to inside and outside. They were having free choice of space and toys, and also access to domestic equipments such as clean clothes basket. The children initiated ZPA by themselves and there was no need of adult intervention or guidance. Scaffolding and learning in the ZPD occurred between children, as they were engaged in intentional goal oriented behaviour hence established their ZPA. Such zones should be dynamic and constantly being renegotiated. This exercise shows that observing children in such expressive way and to see their development within the context of relationships existing in the physical environment of the setting, cultural artifacts, and social interactions gives a comprehensive way of individual child. At one hand it demonstrates a childs competence for understanding changes and on the other hand the early childhood setting as a learning environment. Such an approach moves away from the straitjacket of areas of development and affords the child a voice while giving the caregiver a more meaningful role within the relationship (Berenice Nyland, 1999). Early childhood workers as leaders in childrens rights advocacy We then are needed as advocates for childrens well-being and not only advocates but leaders in advocacy. The basis of our advocacy should be childrens rights, as recognised in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Why we? Because as early childhood professionals, we have responsibilities and opportunities that require we to be advocates. Our responsibilities come from our role as workers with children. We know them and their needs well (Nyland, 1999). We know what promotes their development and their happiness. We know the importance of services for them being of the highest quality. We also know the consequences of children not receiving the services and support they need for their full development and the consequences of poor quality services. Advocacy cannot be left to others when we have so much expertise and experience (Module 4. Topic 1: Advocacy for children. p 5). Conclusion The legal obligations of the Australian government under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child are still to be realised, almost 20 years after its ratification. We can move beyond frustration, anxiety and despair and embrace the possibility of hope or the audacity of hope, as Barack Obama (Quote for the Hope) calls it if we are willing to do so. Children have few choices. We adults and professionals have many. The challenge is to choose to place ourselves at their service and in the service of their rights. Children have the ability to construct their own images and now its upto the society how seeming it. The early childhood practices, like child study, provide a strategy for listening to the very young. A belief in childrens rights and an understanding of childrens strength and competence can be used as a basis for improving the quality of childrens daily lives (Berenice Nyland, 1999). By this our early childhood institutions would provide to the children with opportunities for learning, play and socialisation. So the emerging vision is one of an actively participating and socially competent young child. This young child is ecologically situated: within family and caregiving environments; in relationship with peers; as part of a community; and as a member of society. This young child is to be considered holistically: as a being whose emotional, social physical and cognitive capacities are evolving in various social and cultural settings (The Committee GC 7). Therefore require us to reconsider young, active, participant children in the broadest possible sense, both as individuals and as a constituency.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
: Hal R. Varian. Intermediate Microeconomics, A Modern Approach. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1 BUDGET CONSTRAINT Consumer theory Ã¢â¬â- how consumers buy their goods? Economists assume: consumers choose the best bundle of goods they can afford. Two aspects: Ã¢â¬â-Consumers choose the most preferred goods. Ã¢â¬â-They are limited by economic condition. The Budget Constraint Consumption bundles: ( , ): a list of numbers of goods and services. X = (x1, x2, Ã¢â¬ ¦, xn,) In the case of two goods: good 1 and good 2. Bundle of goods: X = (x1, x2) Prices of goods: (p1, p2),The amount of money the consumer has to spend: m. The consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s affordable consumption bundles, (x1, x2) satisfy p1x1 + p2x2 ? m. Ã¢â¬â-The budget set of the consumer ( ) . good 2 m/p2 O m/p1 good 1 Two Goods Are Often Enough Composite good Ã¢â¬â-take x2 as everything else, the dollars spent on other goods. For example, x1: consumption of milk in quarts per month. The budget constraint will take t he form p1x1 + x2 ? m. The case of n goods Budget constraint: p1x1 + p2x2+Ã¢â¬ ¦+ pnxn ? m. Properties of the Budget Set Budget line( ): p1x1 + p2x2 = m. Vertical intercept: m/p2Horizontal intercept: m/p1. Slope: Ã¢â¬â p1/p2 Economic interpretation of slope: For the bundle (x1, x2): p1x1 + p2x2 = m. After a change in bundle (? x1, ? x2): p1(x1+? x1) + p2(x2+? x2) = m. good 2 x2 ?x2 ?x1 O x1 good 1 Subtracting the first equation from the second gives p1? x1 + p2? x2 = 0. This gives The number of good 2 the consumer must give up when he increases his consumption of good 1 by 1 unit, and keeps the money spent unchanged. Opportunity cost of consuming good 1Ã¢â¬â- in order to consume more of good 1 you have to give up some consumption of good 2.Budget Line Changes How the budget line changes when prices and incomes change? Change in income Change in m results in a parallel shift of the budget line. Intercepts m/p2 and m/p1 will change. Slope Ã¢â¬â p1/p2 keeps unchanged. good 2 m/p2 O m/p1 good 1 Changes in prices Increasing p1 will not change the vertical intercept, but p1/p2 will become larger. good 2 m/p2 O m/p1 good 1 What happens to the budget line when we change the prices of good 1 and good 2 at the same time? Proportionally: (tp1)x1 + (tp2)x2 = m.What happens to the budget line when we change the prices of good 1 and good 2 and the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ income at the same time? good 2 m/p2 O m/p1 good 1 Proportionally: (tp1)x1 + (tp2)x2 = tm. Some observations: If one price declines and all others stay the same, the consumer must be at least as well-off. If the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s income increases and all prices remain the same, the consumer must be at least as well-off as at the lower income A perfectly balanced inflation cannot change anybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s optimal choice. 2 PREFERENCES Consumer Preferences( Consumer ranks consumption bundles by his satisfaction from use of goods, irrelevant to the prices. The case of two goods Given any two consumption bund les, X=(x1, x2) and Y=(y1, y2), the consumer can rank them in one of three possible ways: (x1, x2) is strictly better than (y1, y2); (y1, y2) is strictly better than (x1, x2); (x1, x2) and (y1, y2) are indifferent. Two basic relations: [pic]: strictly preferred( ), (x1, x2) [pic] (y1, y2): the consumer strictly prefers (x1, x2) to (y1, y2). ~ : indifferent ( ) (x1, x2) ~ (y1, y2). he consumer is indifferent between (x1, x2) and (y1, y2). A composite relation: [pic]: weakly preferred ( ) (x1, x2) [pic](y1, y2): the consumer prefers (x1, x2) to (y1, y2) or is indifferent between (x1, x2) and (y1, y2). Assumptions about Preferences Axioms about consumer preference (weakly preference): Complete( ). Given any X-bundle and any Y-bundle, consumer can say that (x1, x2)[pic](y1, y2), or (y1, y2)[pic](x1, x2). Reflexive( ). Consumer should say that any bundle is at least as good as itself: (x1, x2)[pic](x1, x2). Transitive ( ).If a consumer feels that (x1, x2)[pic](y1, y2) and (y1, y2)[pic](z 1, z2) then he feels that (x1, x2)[pic](z1, z2). Indifference Curves Weakly preferred set: all of the consumption bundles that are weakly preferred to (x1, x2). Indifference curves( ): Ã¢â¬â-The boundary of weakly preferred set; Good 2 x2 O x1 Good 1 Further assumptions Well-behaved preferences( ): Monotonicity ( )Ã¢â¬â- more is better. If that x1 ( y1, x2 ( y2 and that x1 ( y1 , x2 ( y2 at least one hold, then (x1, x2) [pic] (y1, y2) Ã¢â¬â-indifference curves have negative slope.A indifference curve is the set of bundles for which the consumer is just indifferent to (x1, x2). Good 2 O Good 1 Convexity ( )Ã¢â¬â- averages are preferred to extremes. If (x1, x2) and (y1, y2) are indifferent, then the bundle ([pic]x1+[pic]y1, [pic]x2+[pic]y2) is strictly preferred to (x1, x2) and (y1, y2). Ã¢â¬â-indifference curves are convex. Good 2 O Good 1 Examples of preferences Perfect Substitutes( ) The consumer is willing to substitute one good for the other at a constant rate. Goo d 2 O Good 1Perfect Complements( ) Goods that are always consumed together in fixed proportions. Good 2 O Good 1 Discrete Goods( ) x1 : a discrete good that is only available in integer amounts. Suppose that x2 is money to be spent on other goods. Good 2 O Good 1 The Marginal Rate of Substitution Marginal rate of substitution (MRS, ): slope of an indifference curve. Ã¢â¬â- measures the rate at which the consumer is just willing to substitute one good for the other. MRS = [pic] Note: MRS is a negative number. Good 2 (x2O (x1 Good 1 The other form of MRS MRS =[pic] Good 2 x2 O x1 Good 1 Behavior of the Marginal Rate of Substitution Describe the indifference curves by the MRS. Perfect substitutes: the marginal rate of substitution is constant. Perfect complements: the MRS is either 0 or infinity, and nothing in between. In general case: Monotonicity: indifference curves must have a negative slope, i. e. negative MRS. Convex: the marginal rate of substitution decreases as we increase x1, Ã¢â¬â-diminishing MRS. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [pic]
Thursday, January 9, 2020
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