Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Most Disregarded Fact Regarding Banned List of Essay Topics Revealed

The Most Disregarded Fact Regarding Banned List of Essay Topics Revealed There are just a few things that define whether an essay you're working on is going to be a good one. To choose which subject you're likely to discuss, it's essential to see the complete collection of good persuasive speech topics from the special area of study. Very often it becomes hard to choose 1 topic either on account of the many ideas in the student's head, or due to their complete absence. You will be assigned a topic, or your professor will permit you to select your own. Some individuals may think that the great content might be written on any topic and the paper success is dependent just on the mastery of the writer. They attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, or to increase knowledge). Some people believe that teachers should be liable for teaching students to judge what's right and wrong so they can behave well. They think that schools should select students according to their academic abilities, while others believe that it is better to have students with different abilities studying together. Here's What I Know About Banned List of Essay Topics You will discover a range of argumentative essay topics but picking the perfect one might be the basic and the very first step to compose an influential essay. If you're looking for examples of argumentative essays, here's a sample that will help you out! The ideal thing about Essay is it's possible to use any kind of language forma l or informal. There are many steps which you should take so as to compose an exemplary essay. An essay is just a slice of content that's written from the perception of writer or author. There are five kinds of argumentative essays. It is all about arguing and debating on a topic, which is debatable. An argumentative essay requires you to choose a topic and have a position on it. You ought to develop a superior argument, which encompasses not just your primary point, but also all the pieces which make this up. You always intuitively understand as soon as an intriguing essay idea is in fact the ideal idea for you. At some stage, you're likely to be requested to compose an argumentative essay. When it has to do with writing an argumentative essay, the most essential issue to do is to select a topic and an argument that you may really get behind. What Everybody Dislikes About Banned List of Essay Topics and Why Categories, essay topics might be divided into. Following is an excellent collection of 100 essay topics. The success of your essay is in the perfect selection of the topic. Then take a look at a list of argumentative essay advice to help you begin. It is extremely important to decide on a great topic so as to compose a fantastic paper. Now, you've got a good deal of topics to pick from and lay down your thoughts on paper. Always start with something that you are conversant with when picking an excellent topic. Here's What I Know About Banned List of Essay Topics Our writers use their abilities and abilities to meet the wants and necessities of our customers. Questions are a standard direction of getting interest, along with evocative language or a strong statistic Don't assume your audience is already knowledgeable about your topic. The primary goal of writing an argumentative essay is to understand how to convince individuals to modify their perception of things they strongly believe in. Before writing your proposal you have to do the next things. You're able to support a specific idea when criticizing different facets but let the reader decide. When you're picking your topic, bear in mind that it's much simpler to write about something which you presently have interest ineven in case you don't know a great deal about it. One of the greatest methods to change anybody's mind is with an emotional investment. One of the greatest approaches to convince anybody's mind is via an emotional connection. Vital Pieces of Banned List of Essay Topics Books never ought to be banned. Essay topics in English can be hard to produce. History is easily the most important course in school. Writing about nuclear weapons is always a superb idea. Many students know that it's not simple to effectively develop an argumentative topic. Foreign languages ought to be compulsory in the most important school. Teens should be asked to take parenting classes. Cyber bullying caught by means of a student even away from the school premises have to be hindered by the schools admin. Year round school isn't a good idea. Schools having the very same sex students are a lot better.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Analysis Of The Poem Nomos And Physis - 1498 Words

Nomos and Physis are two contrasting terms that explain the meaning and movement of life and death, and choices that bring about change. Similar to Yin and Yang, nomos and physis together create a contrasting whole. The poem Ithaca is related to the Odyssey as it provides an outline for the difficulties the main character might have to face on his journey. There is a clear divide between nomos and physis here, as these terms are related to the problem and the solution that the reader must face. Although the idea behind nomos and physis may seem to be outdated compared to today s beliefs and practices, they can still be applied to situations and today and give insight into the roles that nature and law play in our lives. The story behind physis begins in Greece. Physis is defined as â€Å"natural† or something created by nature. The rising and setting of the sun, the changing of the seasons, and the death and decay of all life on earth are all related to physis. To the Greeks, physis described nature and the natural growth and decay of life. Greek life was very intertwined with nature. Their days were controlled by the rising and setting of the sun, the changing of the seasons, and the seemingly unpredictable changes in weather. Early Greek life was dominated by the landscape, as men and women would work with and fight against it in their daily challenges. Odysseus had to fight against some of these natural events during his story, such as when his men were poisoned by

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Harbinger Of A Category Crisis - 1157 Words

Victor Frankenstein: The Harbinger of a Category Crisis Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus partially follows the narrative of Victor Frankenstein in his journey of mental and moral deterioration. Victor’s attempt to unnaturally create life through unorthodox methods is his metaphorical attempt to play with fire; he explores a realm beyond human capability by using a power only known to God. This novel leaves readers with a dilemma that makes them question who in fact is really the monster of this story, the creature he created or Victor himself. According to Jeffrey Jerome Cohen’s â€Å"Seven Monster Theses†, Frankenstein may actually be the embodiment of the monster of his third thesis in this story. The reasons Victor may conform to being the â€Å"Harbinger of a Category Crisis† is because of his seclusion from his family and the rest of society and his unethical inquiry and exploration into the laws of nature beyond what is thought to be possible. In the initial stages of the book, Victor spends a large amount of time away from his home and family in Geneva to heavily indulge in his studies. His academics consisted of natural philosophy and sciences, especially in the creation of life and its death and decay. Even after he was done studying, he locked himself away in his apartment in preparation for his experiment of artificially creating life. Victor even acknowledges that the pursuit of his work has caused him to â€Å"forget those friends who were so many milesShow MoreRelatedThe Understanding of the Monster Essay1143 Words   |  5 Pagesalso can provide us with possible solutions to gaps and uncertainties in our mind that Sigmund Freud would label as â€Å"The Uncanny†. I can only but agree with Cohen’s proclamations that the monster’s body is a cultural body, a monster is the harbinger of category crisis, and a monster stands at the threshold of becoming. These theses attempt to explain the diversity of the term monster when it com es to different cultures and the human imagination of what has been, is, and can be. The first of the sevenRead MoreFrom The Beginning Of Time, Humans Have Struggled To Make1030 Words   |  5 Pagesclosely with a couple of Jeffrey Jerome Cohen’s theses about monster culture. Two of the theses that Dr. Jekyll relates to are â€Å"Thesis VI: Fear of the Monster Is Really a Kind of Desire† (Course Pack 67) and â€Å"Thesis III: The Monster Is the Harbinger of Category Crisis† (60). Jekyll desired and longed for his potion. After much thought, he came to the conclusion that he needed it. He wasn’t forced. It was â€Å"with a strong glow of courage† (Stevenson 44) he drank his potion. At the time, he was unaware ofRead MoreButler ´s Characterization Shori1105 Words   |  5 Pagessociety’s homophobia and conservative beliefs about sex. A final way that Shori exemplifies Cohen’s idea of monster culture is that she is the result of a genetic experiment, a crossbreed. Shori is both human and vampire, the ultimate â€Å"harbinger of category crisis† (Cohen). Additionally, she is both black and white. However, instead of this hybridization being a handicap it is advantageous and essential to her survival. This is a new idea since in the past both miscegenation and cross breeding haveRead MoreRichard Matheson s I Am Legend 1154 Words   |  5 Pagesboogey-man for he genuinely terrified them. He witnessed their fear as he looked out from his bars and heard the startled cries. A startling ironic revelation for him. To them, he was possibly far worse than the plague. He s considered as a â€Å"harbinger of category crisis†Ã¢â‚¬â€utilizing Cohen s words—as he posed a threat to the new society being established by the infected-vampiric humans. A fact he comes to term with during his final moment s. â€Å"Normalcy was a majority concept, the standard of many and not theRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Cold Mountain 1296 Words   |  6 Pagesstruggle which an individual must face in order to survive in a natural environment. From Frazier’s standpoint, the usage of this particular quotation could be a confirmation of Darwin’s influence on his literature. The term naturalism describes a category of literature that applies scientific principles of detachment and objectivity to its reading of human beings. The literary movement of naturalism got its foundation from Darwin’s theory of evolution. In his novel, Frazier makes use of real historicalRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Cold Mountain 1298 Words   |  6 Pagesstruggle which an individual must face in order to survive in a natural environment. From Frazier’s standpoint, the usage of this particular quotation could be a confirmation of Darwin’s influence on his literature. The term naturalism describes a category of literature that applies scientific principles of detachment and objectivity to its reading of human beings. The literary movement of naturalism got its foundation from Darwin’s theory of evolution. In his novel, Frazier makes use of real historicalRead MoreMore than 95% of U.S. Homes use Arm and Hammer Products1329 Words   |  5 Pagestechnology. This was quite helpful for the company at the beginning but as the time passed by, the growth of 15% annually started to become static which raised concern at the higher management devising a new strategy to steer company out of the looming crisis. To give an overview of whole situation, sales became stagnant as company’s strategy was to sell products which are extensions to baking soda i.e. sodium carbonate. To bring in a change, for the first time in 156 years, management affairs were transferredRead MoreHuman Security and National Security2199 Words   |  9 Pagesto the human security and provides a holistic concept in this regard. There have been mentioned around seven categories of threats which have been faced by human beings on the earth. The security and its conditions are to be realized in the domain of economic security, food security, political security, personal security, health security and environmental security. Hence from these categories of security, one can comprehend that conceptualization and realization of human security entails into its foldRead MoreCompare Leadership Styles Between Jack Welch and Jeff Immelt4058 Words   |  17 PagesWelch was a ruthless taskmaster at GE. Immelt works with long term perspective rather with a short term one. Immelt proved that he is a very effective leader by helping GE overcome the hardship in 2001 when terrorist attacks on September 11 were a harbinger of bad times to come for GE. (see Appendix B, Story 2) It’s really difficult to say this leader is better than another one. To compare and contrast them, in the range of this paper, in terms of leadership, we would just use leadership styles, traitsRead MoreThe Politics Of Political Parties3081 Words   |  13 Pagesprivate colleges, charities, and cultural institutions. Many were pietistic Protestant who called for public schools to instill moral values and suggested prohibition to end the liquor problem. The Whigs attracted voters from every socio-economic category but proved particularly attractive to the professional and business classes: doctors, attorneys, sellers, ministers, bankers, storekeepers, factory owners, commercially oriented farmers and large-scale planters. Because of the party platform, commercial

Monday, December 16, 2019

Finance Foundation Free Essays

LB5212:03 FINANCIAL FOUNDATIONS FOR MANAGERS Singapore Campuses Study Period 3, 2012 LB5212:03 Financial Foundations for Managers SUBJECT GUIDE 2012 Study Period 3, Singapore Campuses Contents Contents1 1. School Overview0 2. Subject at a Glance0 3. We will write a custom essay sample on Finance Foundation or any similar topic only for you Order Now Subject Details0 4. Subject Readings and Resources0 5. Assessment Details0 6. Grading Criteria0 7. Student Assistance0 8. Important Policies Guidelines0 9. Postgraduate Skills Qualities0 10. Lecture Tutorial Schedule0 11. Annexure0 School Overview The School of Business is at the forefront of innovation in business and information technology education. With a focus on internationalisation, growth and innovation, the school exploits its unique regional location and expertise in courses that combine discipline-based excellence with practical application. JCU aims to empower responsible managers with practical skills underpinned by cutting edge theory. The school is one of the largest schools at JCU in terms of student numbers and offers programs at Brisbane, Cairns, Singapore and Townsville. Graduate coursework degrees include the flagship program the Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Professional Accounting (MPA), Master of Economics (ME), and Master of International Tourism and Hospitality Management (MITHM). The school also includes Information Technology, offering a Master of IT (MIT and MIT Extended). Within the coursework masters suite of degrees there are opportunities for joint degree combinations. JCU’s recently ‘refreshed’ MBA is committed to an agenda of responsible management, in which all our activities are consistent with sustainable and ethical business practices. Across the four campuses, there are majors available in Marketing, Human Resource Management, Managerial Accounting, Dispute Resolution and International Tourism. Research degrees are also available at honours, masters, and Doctoral levels. Honours students from JCU have an outstanding record of gaining quality jobs in government and consulting circles and a number of students have won Australian Postgraduate Award scholarships and progressed into doctoral courses. There are a number of different pathways into the postgraduate study areas, with direct entry for those already holding an undergraduate degree. For those who do not have a first degree but have relevant work experience and professional experience, the pathway to postgraduate study starts with a Graduate Certificate, progresses through the Graduate Diploma, and reaches the Masters level and above by following these indirect entry strategies. Our staff are friendly and approachable and our degrees are designed to help you develop skills for application anywhere in the world in the dynamic business environment of the twenty-first century. A number of our staff have been recognised through independent rankings as world leaders in their field. School of Business staff have also recently won national awards for teaching excellence, and are committed to helping students achieve their career goals. JCU’s School of Business is committed to working towards achievement of genuine and sustainable reconciliation between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and the wider community, as outlined in the JCU Reconciliation Statement at http://www-public. jcu. edu. au/study/indigenous-students/JCUPRD_039193 ____________________________________________________________________________________ Prepared by D. Smorfitt for the School of Business, James Cook University. Copyright 2012 This publication is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism, or review as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process or placed in computer memory without written permission. This subject guide was last revised on 20 October 2012. Subject at a Glance The followin g summary provides a quick reference to the most important aspects of this subject. Please ensure that you have read the entire guide in full. Staff Contact Details The following staff members are responsible for the preparation or delivery of this subject. Please contact the relevant staff member if you have any concerns during the study period. | Name| Room| Phone| Email| Consultations*| | | | | | | Lecturers:| | | | | | Singapore| Teoh Teik Toe| | 65-97905202| teik. teoh@jcu. edu. au| | * Other consultation times by appointment only. Class Times and Contact Details A 3 credit point subject will require a 130 hour workload of study-related participation over the duration of the study period irrespective of mode of delivery. Students enrolled in LB5212 should attend the three hours of contact time set aside for each session. | Time| Day| Room| Assessment Summary A summary of the assessable items for LB5212 is provided in the table below. Please read through the assessment details presented later in this subject guide. Assessment| Supervised individual assessment| Weight| Due Date| Assessment 1 – Test| x| 20%| Week 6 in lecture – 60 minutes in duration| Assessment 2 – Assignment| | 30%| | Assessment 3 – Final Exam| x| 50%| To be advised (2 hours in duration – emphasis on application and interpretation)| You are not required to satisfy the examiners in all assessment tasks but you must obtain a final mark of at least 50% to pass the subject. In addition, you must obtain at least an average of 50% over all supervised individual components within a subject to pass the subject overall. No individual assessment piece should be taken as an indication of your final grade. Raw marks may be subject to moderation or scaling. To be eligible to pass this subject, participants are required to attempt all forms of assessment and must demonstrate a reasonable degree of competence in the required subject learning outcomes as examined in each form of assessment. To be eligible to pass this subject, participants are required to complete all forms of assessment and must demonstrate a reasonable degree of competence in the required subject learning outcomes as examined in each form of assessment. Please note that in the event that you miss a piece of assessment, you will be allocated a zero unless the appropriate documentation such as a doctor’s certificate is provided. If such documentation is provided, the end of semester ‘Final Exam’s’ weighting will be increased accordingly. Subject Details Welcome from the Subject Coordinator Welcome to the subject of Financial Foundations for Managers. The history of accounting can be traced back to traders in ancient times who sought to keep account of their business dealings and wealth. Today, organisations from small to large utilise the skills of accountants to help them in their decision-making and to report their financial performance to shareholders, creditors, employees and other stakeholders. Accounting skills are also utilised in a wide range of related jobs including financial analysts, auditing, professional practice, tax agents, financial planning, stockbroking and investment banking. This subject is designed to provide an understanding of the related applications of accounting in the contemporary environment. Financial information about corporate performance is critical not only to the success of individual companies but to the success of global capital markets. Accounting topics covered will include the preparation and interpretation of financial reports, budgeting and performance evaluation. It should be recognised that this subject is concerned with developing an understanding of accounting concepts, issues and problems rather than with educating you to undertake the role of a professional accountant. Our Master of Professional Accounting program or combined Master of Professional Accounting and MBA program is better designed for the latter task. Since the 1980s, many developments have occurred in the field of accounting such as the integration of cashflow statements into financial reporting, development of international accounting standards, and environmental and social reporting. The number of practitioners, academics and students engaged in this field has grown substantially, reflecting the perceived value of the study to business practice and the many financially rewarding careers that the area promises. The principles and concepts of accounting, once the exclusive preserve of financial controllers and finance staff, are now being applied to units and functions within a business. Managers at all levels are expected to have financial skills such as the capacity to understand financial reports and budgets and to be able to analyse business decisions not just from a strategic viewpoint but from a financial one as well. You have chosen an important subject to study. No matter what your level or position in an organisation, you will find yourself involved in some way with decision-making from a financial viewpoint. Whether your career goal is to be part of a top management team or you plan to apply your technical training in some functional area of the business, you will be expected to understand and apply basic financial skills such as the capacity to interpret financial statements, budgets and measure financial performance of divisions/markets/products. We do hope that your studying this subject will significantly improve your financial skills and you will find studying this subject interesting and rewarding. Subject Description This subject provides students with an understanding of the fundamentals of accounting. The aim is to build on basic concepts to develop a clearer understanding of financial statements, their uses and limitations in decision-making. The capacity to analyse financial statements and make decisions based on them will be emphasised. The subject examines decisions on cost structures and the implications for operating leverage and thus the financial statements. An introduction to capital budgeting and the application thereof to various cases is also covered. This subject is a core requirement for the MBA and thus must be completed by all MBA students. Subject Learning Outcomes As a student it is important for you to understand how the learning outcomes identified by the subject coordinator are achieved throughout the subject. The following table shows the alignment between content, assessment and learning outcomes. Subject Learning Outcomes| Related Content / Assessment| 1. Understand the nature of assets, liabilities, equity, income and expenses in the context of the accounting model. | Lectures, tutorials,test andassignment| 2. Develop an understanding of and ability to prepare asic accounting statements such as the statement of financial position and the statement of financial performance| Tutorials and assignment | 3. The ability to analyse and interpret financial statements and an understanding of the relationship between the different statements. | Lectures, tutorial and exam| 1. Ability to produce and interpret budgets and understand the various ways in which a business assesses capital investments, develop its capital budg et and make long term resource allocations. | Lectures, tutorial and exam| 2. Understand the behaviour of costs and know how to conduct analysis of impact of changes in sales and costs on profits. | Lectures, tutorial, assignment and exam| 3. Understand operating leverage, its measurement and the impact it has on financial statements through the cost structures as well as the use of cost structures in short-term decision regarding resource usage. | Lectures, tutorial and exam| 4. Understand the various ways in which a business assesses capital investments develop their capital budget and make long term resource allocation decisions. | Lectures, tutorial and exam| These are the learning outcomes for the subject. Specific learning outcomes for each assessment item will be provided with the detailed assessment item. Approaches to Teaching and Learning in this Subject A number of teaching-learning approaches will be used in this subject in order to achieve the above-stated learning outcomes. * Lectures: They are used to introduce basic concepts, principles, and issues related to accounting foundations. Generally, lectures are arranged to lead each session. At the beginning of the lectures, participants will be made aware of session objectives and specific session learning outcomes. A set of current financial statements will be used to provide students with an on-going example of the applicability of the topics covered in real life. * Class exercises: We will work through class exercises in most sessions. These are used to check your understanding and grasp of some fundamentals of the subject. The list of exercises is on the last page of the subje ct outline. The exercises referred to are at the end of the respective chapters or provided on LearnJCU. * Prior study: Study prior to the start of the class is essential, otherwise deep learning is unlikely to occur. It is understood that all of you have a very busy work schedule. However, it cannot be over-emphasised that this pre-class study (especially pre-reading and attempting set class exercises) is absolutely essential and should be taken seriously. * Application of class learning to real world issues: In this subject, it is our intention to extend the learning beyond the classroom and hence you are expected to apply what you have learnt in the classroom to the real world issues. This is done by relating the subject assessment to financial analysis for a real world business or industry. A practical assignment in which the operational budgets and accrual based Income Statement and Balance Sheet are produced are required. The effectiveness of the class sessions for the above teaching-learning approach depends importantly on your participation in and contribution to the class. Your involvement in the class can be the most effective way of improving your understanding of the subject matter. It is strongly recommended that you regularly participate in the class and actively engage yourself in class activities. Subject Readings and Resources Prescribed Texts (Compulsory) * ————————————————- Atrill, P. , McLaney, E. , Harvey, D. and Jenner, M. (2009), Accounting: an introduction, 4th edition, Pearson, Frenchs Forest NSW. * Jenner, M. and Silvester, M. (2009), Workbook to accompany Accounting: an Introduction, 4th edition, Pearson, Frenchs Forest NSW. * ————————————————- Copies of financial statements of an entity is provided to you – also available at http://www. cpaaustralia. com. au/cps/rde/xbcr/cpa-site/2010-financial-report. pdf There is an expectation that you will read the appropriate chapters in your text prior to the lecture they relate to. The Jenner workbook provides you with chapter by chapter questions and solutions that I strongly encourage you to work through in your own time. Further Reading Please note the following URL http://libguides. jcu. edu. au/content. php? pid=117627sid=2226980 contains additional information applicable to this subject. The literature on accounting is ever expanding. There are a large number of publications available at the JCU library. Books in this area are also readily available in business sections of many bookshops. Provided below is a list of selected titles for your information. You may not have the time to read through many books. Nonetheless, it will be useful even if you have a quick flip over some of them. We do encourage you to consult some other books or buy some good ones for your own library. * * Some useful materials for further reading have been selected for you and will be placed on LearnJCU or handed out in class from time to time. Hope you will find it interesting to read them. * Accounting Texts such as * Bazley, M. and Hancock, P. (2010), Contemporary Accounting, 7th Edition, Cengage Learning, Australia. (ISBN: 9780170181587) Birt, J. , et al. 2010). Accounting: business reporting for decision making, John Wiley Sons Australia, Milton, Qld. Hoggett, J. R. , Medlin, J. Edwards, L. , Tilling, M. Hogg, E. (2012). Accounting, 8th Edition, John Wiley Sons. * * Useful Electronic Databases available at JCU library: * ACCOUNT   1982 –  via Informit –  An index with abstracts produced by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia. Subject coverage includes accounting, auditing, taxation, insolvency, financial management, corporation law, banking, electronic data processing, management and superannuation. Source documents are Australian journal articles, conference papers and academic research papers. * ABI/Inform (1971-1997) – International business, management and marketing. * AUSTROM (1990-1998) – Australian databases, particularly APAIS (Australian Public Affairs Information Service). * EconLit (1969-2002) – Citations with abstracts of the world’s economic literature. * DatAnalysis – This database provides comprehensive information for all Australian Stock Exchange listed companies. These reports are updated daily from relevant ASX announcements. Full text. Subject Website on LearnJCU Access the subject website through LearnJCU at learnjcu. jcu. edu. au for all relevant materials. Login using your JCU email username and password. The site for this subject is opened to all participants enrolled in the subject at least seven days prior to the commencement of the subject. Browser requirements for LearnJCU are provided on the opening webpage of LearnJCU. Assessment Details There are three pieces of assessment. 1. Semester test (20% Weighting) The semester test covers the content from the first three sessions. It is a good opportunity to start off the semester by writing a test on a relatively small portion of the semester’s work and gain a good understanding of the concepts covered and hopefully achieve a good result. 2. Group Assignment (30% Weighting) Students are required to submit a group report in groups of two. Students will be allocated into teams in the second session. You will submit one report per group of two. The Topic and associated details are provided in Section 6 below. 3. Final Exam (50% Weighting) You will be required to complete a two-hour end of semester exam covering sessions 4 to 12 inclusive. However, the material in sessions 1 to 3 may be examined indirectly and thus a good understanding of this material is essential. Grading Criteria ASSIGNMENT: TASK The assignment consists of the development of the financial component of a financial plan for a ‘new start business’ that you establish. REPORT Grading Criteria – The report should include the following: * Student group work documentation as per the Annexure at the end of this document. No documentation will result in a zero mark attributed to the group. * Contents page * Introduction and explanation of the business venture. 5 marks) * Executive summary (One page limit) – this is important as in many instances this is where you ‘sell’ your firm and the application for finance and this will determine whether or not the financiers will look at the rest of the document. (5 marks) * Assumptions – these must be documented, clearly presented and must be realistic e. g. you cannot sim ply say I will achieve 10% market share. You need to justify how and why you will achieve this. This may require you researching various sources for information regarding the type of business, the market size as well as consumption patterns for the service your new firm will provide. 10 marks) * Budgets* for two years on a monthly basis. The budgets should at the very least include: (30 marks) * ————————————————- Sales budget (volume) * ————————————————- Sales revenue budget ($) * ————————————————- Debtors budget ($) * ————————————————- Cash b udget ($) * Budgeted Statement of Financial Performance for two years (PL). (15 marks) * Budgeted Statement of Financial Position for two years (Balance Sheet). 15 marks) * Ratios analysing the firm’s liquidity, solvency, profitability and efficiency. ( 5 marks) * Comment and analysis of ratios (this would obviously have to be a favourable commentary! ) i. e. an opportunity to ’sell’ your business. (10 marks) * Conclusion(5 marks) Total: 100 marks ————————————————- ————————————————- Note: Attention should be paid to: * ————————————————- not materially exceeding word limits; * ———————à ¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- spelling, grammar and structure; ————————————————- professional presentation including tables and figures where appropriate; and * ————————————————- use of other resources, appropriate referencing and provision of bibliography. Assignment requirements: * All assignments are to be typed to a professional standard on standard A4 paper using 1. 5 line spacing. * Binding of assignments is not required – staple top left hand corner. * Word limit of 3,500 words (approximately 10 pages) – remember quantity need not reflect quality. * Any appendices are not included in the page limit. Reports should follow (generally) a format for a professional report. * All calculations are to be pro vided in the appendix to your report. * You should make good use of tables where applicable. * You are expected to research the topic in other relevant accounting/finance texts. This research should be well referenced. Do not rely solely on the assigned text for interpretations. * Sources should be appropriately referenced, acknowledging all sources of information that are not yours. * Please clearly indicate the make-up of the formula used. Some useful sites The following may assist you in this assignment: AusInfo – Department of Finance and Administration (1994), Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers, 5th Edition, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. * Australian Tax Office http://www. ato. gov. au/businesses/content. asp? doc=/content/45518. htmpage=2#P15_738 * Look at the Institute of Chartered Accountants website: http://www. charteredaccountants. com. au/ * CPA magazine – available on the web as well on the CPA website: http://www. cpaaust ralia. com. au/cps/rde/xchg/cpa/hs. xsl/index. html * Small Business Development Corporation (WA): http://www. sbdc. com. u/index2. asp * The Queensland State Development: http://www. business. qld. gov. au/index. html * NSW State Development Department: http://www. smallbiz. nsw. gov. au/ * Australian Bureau of Statistics: http://www. abs. gov. au/ausstats/abs@. nsf/mf/1321. 0 * Cairns city council websitehttp://www. cityofcairns. qld. gov. au/ * Cairns Port Authority website – http://www. cairnsport. com. au/ * Tourism Tropical North Queensland – http://www. ttnq. org. au/ General information regarding the assignment The ability to adhere to deadlines is a key feature of any competent professional. Right from the beginning, new students should acquire the habit of meeting deadlines for their work, by organising their study time appropriately. The following points apply to the submission of this assessment: Students are required to submit a group report (groups of two). Students will be allocated into teams in the second lecture. You will submit one report per group of two. Assessment Criteria and Skills Development: Assessment will be based on the criteria provided above. This exercise will teach you the skills needed for formal written communication in a business setting, as well as organising information in a structured format. Team Conflict and Disbandment: The ability to â€Å"lead, manage and contribute effectively to teams† is a key JCU Generic skill and an important skill sought by employers. Working in teams, under proper conditions, encourages peer learning and peer support. Sometimes members of a team will not contribute equally to the task, resulting in some students carrying the full load or the team effort. On other occasions team members have left the subject. This subject uses a peer evaluation sheet to alleviate student concerns about the contribution of individual team members. This will be made available on LearnJCU. Should you have conflict in your team it is important to advise the lecturer as soon as possible. Submission and Return of Assessment: The ability to adhere to deadlines is a key feature of any competent professional. Right from the beginning, new students should acquire the habit of meeting deadlines for their work, by organising their study time appropriately. The following points apply to the submission of this assessment: * Hard copies of the assignment are to be submitted by the due date as per ‘Assessment Summary’ on page 2. The submission is via the School of Business assignment box. (Rooms A1. 09 for Cairns and DA027-317 for Townsville). * Please ensure that you have attached the School of Business Assignment Coversheet and stamped your assignment with the date stamp. All written assignments must use the standard School of Business coversheet and all authors must sign this coversheet. A copy of the cover sheet is available online at: www. jcu. edu. au/business/JC UDEV_011380. html * An electronic copy of your report and spreadsheet must also be emailed to your lecturer as part of the assessment process. The file should be named as follows: Subject, year, surnames, document For example: LB5212_2012_Smith and Jones_Report. ocx LB5212_2012_Smith and Jones_Spreadsheet. xlsx * No extensions will be granted due to the time frame and advance warning provided concerning the work to be undertaken. * The assessment will be returned with feedback. * The mark allocated to the group for the written component will also be the mark allocated to the individual members of the group adjusted as per the peer assessment documentation as provided to the lecturer. The lecturer’s decision on the allocation of marks is final. * See Annexure for peer assessment documentation. Student Assistance Studying at university typically involves many challenges. You may experience academic, professional or personal situations that are difficult to deal with. However, there are many options for you to pursue including academic advisers, counsellors or study skills advisers. The following table provides a summary of some of the services you may access at JCU. If you have any concerns please talk to someone! Support Needed| Who to Contact| Information for Current Students| www. jcu. edu. au/student/| Accommodation| www. jcu. edu. au/accommodation/| Childcare | www. jcu. edu. au/student/JCUPRD_017384. html| Computers, IT, Library and Email| http://www-public. jcu. edu. u/libcomp/assist/infohelp/JCUPRD_033554 | Equity and diversity| http://www. jcu. edu. au/studentequity/| Students with disabilities| http://www. jcu. edu. au/disability/| Indigenous students| http://www-public. jcu. edu. au/study/indigenous-students/index. html | Employment| www. jcu. edu. au/careers/| Enrolment| Faculty Student Office www. jcu. edu. au/newstudent/studyabroad/jcut st_057853. html | Exams| www. jcu. edu. au/student/assessment/| Financial| Student Loans www. jcu. edu. au/student/Loans/studentloans/| International Student| http://www. jcu. edu. au/international/| Personal / Emotional Support| Counselling Service www. cu. edu. au/student/counselling/| Library| http://www-public. jcu. edu. au/libcomp/index. htm Faculty Librarian [Insert here. ]| Spiritual Support| http://www. jcu. edu. au/chaplaincy/| Learning Skills / Language Help| Language ; Learning Services http://www. jcu. edu. au/learningskills/ | Equity Statement James Cook University is committed to encouraging equity and diversity. In particular, JCU aims to provide an optimal learning environment to students from a variety of backgrounds: * Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students * People from rural and isolated areas * People from low socio-economic backgrounds People with disabilities * People from non-English speaking backgrounds. Information relating to scholarships, bursarie s and services is available at www. jcu. edu. au/studentequity or by free call 1800 300 064. Important Policies ; Guidelines Role and Responsibilities – JCU Student Charter The Charter outlines the reasonable expectations that students can have of the University while studying and also what the University expects of its students. Refer to the JCU website. Assessment Policies There are a number of assessment policies that you should be aware of as a student of JCU. The most important policy is the university’s Assessment Practices Policy, which specifies the requirements of assessment practice for undergraduate and postgraduate coursework subjects. This policy can be accessed from: http://www. jcu. edu. au/policy/teaching/coursemanagement/JCUDEV_016741. html You should also be familiar with the policies and procedures that relate to your right of access to assessment marks and materials and the request for review of assessment. These rights are detailed in the Review of Assessment and Student Access to Scripts and Materials policy which can be viewed at: http://www. cu. edu. au/policy/teaching/coursemanagement/JCUDEV_005333. html Referencing and Plagiarism Plagiarism occurs when writers claim ownership of written words or ideas that are not their own. Plagiarism is a form of cheating and any instances of plagiarism will be dealt with promptly according to University procedures. Instances of student academic misconduct are handled using a four stage procedure: Stage 1: Referral of the allegation; Stage 2: Preliminary investigation; Stage 3: Hearing; Stage 4: Appeal. If plagiarism is detected, the lecturer will immediately notify the Head of School in writing. The Head of School is then responsible for further actions, and will notify you of their decisions about the penalties. Working together, discussing ideas, or helping one another with references is fine. However, the piece of work that you finally submit for assessment must be your own. It should contain your ideas and your assessment of other people’s ideas, and be written in your own words. Students who are found guilty of plagiarism will be subject to the provisions of the Student Academic Misconduct Requirements which can be accessed from: http://www. cu. edu. au/policy/teaching/coursemanagement/JCUDEV_005375. html It is important that you reference your work correctly. In the School of Business different disciplines may require different ways of referencing your sources, but in general most subjects within the school will use the APA (American Psychological Association) Style. Please confirm this with your lecturer. APA referencing guidelines are provided in the library l ibguide which can be accessed from: http://libguides. jcu. edu. au/referencing Submitting Written Assignments Unless advised otherwise by the subject coordinator, all written assignments must use the standard School of Business coversheet and all authors must sign this coversheet. A copy of the cover sheet is available online at: www. jcu. edu. au/business/JCUDEV_011380. html The assignment and coversheet must be stamped using the time/date stamp located adjacent to the assignment boxes in Townsville and Cairns. Different submission processes are in place for students in other locations. The assignment boxes will be cleared at 5. 00pm each day and the date/time stamp on each assignment will be checked. Any assignments received after the due date and time will be deemed to be â€Å"late† and will not be collected until 5. 00pm the following working day. Please note that some lecturers may have specific assignment requirements and it is your responsibility to check these with your lecturer. Penalties for late submission of assignments In the absence of any extension, late submission of work will result in a penalty of 5% of the possible mark for each day late. For example, If you are awarded a mark of 71% for a 30% essay that is handed in 4 days late, your final mark will be 51% of 30, which is 15. . Weekends are treated as a single full day because university buildings are not usually accessible of over the weekend to allow for submission. Assessment tasks will generally not be graded after 14 days past the due date. Supplementary and Deferred Exams If you are unable to sit your examination at the scheduled times due to extenuating circumstances (e. g. medical, trauma, death in the family etc) you may apply to sit a deferred examination. The Head of School has the right to decline an application if they consider the reasons are less than exceptional. Alternately, applying for special consideration is recommended in situations where you feel that your preparation has been/or is adversely affected by certain circumstances before and up to the day of the exam. In this situation you still need to sit the exam on the scheduled day. Special consideration (if approved) means that the lecturer will consider your circumstances when marking your examination. In some cases, you might be awarded the opportunity to complete a supplementary exam. This will be indicated by an ‘NS’ grade on semester results. A supplementary exam cannot be applied for, it is granted at the discretion of the examiner. A supplementary result is based exclusively on the result of the supplementary exam and previous assessment is not included in a recalculation of the student’s result. In accordance with University policy, a student who has completed a supplementary exam can only receive a grade of ‘SP’ (supplementary passed), ‘SN’ (supplementary failed) or an ‘SX’ (failed to sit supplementary). For more information please see: http://www. jcu. edu. au/policy/teaching/coursemanagement/JCUDEV_005344. html Subject and Teaching Feedback We welcome all forms of feedback from our students. If you have something to say about your experience you should visit JCU’s Student Feedback and Complaints web pages www. jcu. edu. au/student/complaints/index. htm JCU staff value and appreciate student feedback as a source of evidence about the quality of our teaching and courses so you are strongly encouraged to provide considered feedback for each of your subjects. Student feedback is one way of gaining recognition of subject and teaching strengths, and provides information on areas that may need further development or change. JCU provides two formal mechanisms for you to provide feedback about your subjects and teachers: Student Feedback about Teaching (SFT) and Student Feedback about Subjects (SFS). The SFT is paper-based, and is conducted at the request of your lecturer or tutor and usually occurs in the latter weeks of semester. The SFS is available to all students through StudentsOnline towards the end of each study period. You can view a sample of the SFS at http://www. jcu. edu. au/teaching/evaluation/JCUPRD_016952. html Other Policies and Guidelines Further information on important policy information is available for all JCU students at the JCU website http://www. jcu. edu. au/policy/student/ Postgraduate Skills Qualities Postgraduate attributes are the skills and qualities that every student should have when they leave the University – irrespective of the qualification they have attained. These skills are often the same competencies that employers expect from graduates. You will not attain all of the JCU postgraduate qualities in this subject because these skills will be developed over the full the length of your degree in various subjects. The table below indicates how the content and assessment in this subject fosters the development of JCU’s postgraduate attributes. Graduate Skills| Related Content / Assessment| Critical Thinking| | 1. 1 the ability to appraise information critically| Lectures, Test, Assignment and Exam | 1. 2 the ability to use independent judgement to synthesise information to make intellectual and/or creative advances| Lectures, Assignment and Exam | 1. 3 the ability to place their research in a broader (preferably international) theoretical, practical and policy context| | Problem Solving| | . 1 the ability to think laterally and be original| Lectures, Test, Assignment and Exam | 2. 2 the ability to conceptualise problems| Test, Assignment and Exam | 2. 3 the ability to conceptualise and evaluate a range of potential solutions to relevant problems| Test, Assignment and Exam | 2. 4 the ability to encompass and use methods and conceptual advances in areas of knowledge cognate to their centra l area(s) of expertise| | 2. 5 the ability to evaluate and extrapolate from the outcomes of their research| | Project Management| | . 1 the ability to plan, conduct and manage research in their discipline| | 3. 2 the ability to identify and take serendipitous advantage of research opportunities| | 3. 3 the potential to lead and contribute to projects effectively and efficiently| Assignment | 3. 4 the ability to conduct their research in an ethical manner| | Interpersonal Understanding and Communication| | 4. 1 the ability to communicate the methodology, results and implications of their research in a manner appropriate to different purposes and audiences| | 4. the ability to make constructive contributions to project teams or collegial activities| Assignment | 4. 3 the potential to resolve conflicts| Assignment | 4. 4 the ability to work individually and independently| Lectures, Test, Assignment and Exam| Lecture Tutorial Schedule Week/Session| Lectures/Session| Content a| Readings | Related Assessment| Tutorials b, c,| 1| Introductory concepts financial systems| Ch 1 Ch 2 self study| Test, Assignment and exam| Def exercise provided, Ch 1: DC – 1. 1; 1. 11; 1. 12; 1. 16; 1. 17; 1. 18; 1. 20; 1. 22; Ch 2: is self study 2. 16; 2. 17; 2. 24; 2. 5; 2. 26. | 2| Accounting equation and transaction analysis| Notes provided| Test, Assignment and exam| Three exercises provided| 3| Income statement and balance sheet| Ch 3 4| Test, Assignment and exam| Financing decisions questions provided and Ch 3: DC– 3. 7; 3. 10; 3. 18; 3. 20; App – 3. 15 Ch 4: DC – 4. 2; 4. 8; 4. 10; 4. 11; 4. 15; 4. 17; 4. 19 4. 28; App – 4. 14| 4| Statement of cash flows| Ch 5| Exam| Guess Who question provided; Ch 5: DC 5. 2; 5. 19; Case study 5. 1 (leave out Q3, 10, 11)| 5| Managing working capital| Ch 13| Assignment and exam| Ch 13: DC – 13. 1; 13. 7; 13. ; 13. 11; 13. 12; 13. 13; 13. 19; App – 13. 2; 13. 8; 13. 12; 13. 13; 13. 14| 6| Mid-Term TEST and Financial statement analysis| Ch 6| Assignment and exam| Ch 6: DC – 6. 4; 6. 5; 6. 6; 6. 27 App – 6. 16; 6. 17; 6. 18ab| 7| Financial statement analysis| Ch 6| Assignment and exam| Ch 6: DC – 6. 2; 6. 3; 6. 7; 6. 12; 6. 13; 6. 16; 6. 21; 6. 23 App – 6. 3; 6. 4; 6. 5; 6. 14; 6. 15; 6. 18c-e; Case study 6. 6| 8| Budgeting| Ch 9 10| Assignment and exam| Ch 9 DC – 9. 2; 9. 3; 9. 5; 9. 6; 9. 8; 9. 11; 9. 13; 9. 17; 9. 19; 9. 20; 9. 27; 9. 30; 9. 31 App – 9. 2; 9. 4; 9. 7;Ch 10 DC – 10. 1; App – 10. 6 Case Study 10. 1| | | Study break (Good time for the groups to get together to work on the assignments as well)| | | | 9| | Cost behaviour| Ch 7| Exam| Questions as provided| 10| | Application of cost structures| Ch 7| Exam| Ch 7: DC – 7. 8; 7. 9; 7. 10; 7. 12; 7. 13; 7. 14; 7. 15; App – 7. 6; 7. 10; 7. 12; 7. 13; 7. 15; 7. 17; | 11| | Capital budgeting methods| Ch 11| Exam| Ch 11: DC – 11. 7; 11. 8; 11. 9 ; 11. 10; 11. 11; 11. 12; 11. 14; 11. 17; 1 1. 18; 11. 21; App – 11. 2; 11. 3; 11. 4; 11. 5; 11. 7| 12| | Capital budgeting application| Ch 11| Exam| Ch 11: App – 11. 8; 11. ; 11. 10; 11. 11; 11. 12; 11. 13; 11. 14| Notes: a The sequence of some topics may change due to availability of staff, resources or due to unforeseen circumstances. b Whilst not all will be covered by the lecturer, students should attempt all. Do as many examples as you can until you personally feel you have a good grasp of the material. Publishers’ solutions are available from the lecturer. There will also be other problems for you to look at from time to time. Also do chapters from publishers Workbook. c Additional readings will be provided from time to time as the semester progresses and are examinable. Annexure PEER ASSESSMENT OF GROUP WORK CONTRIBUTION ————————————————- Employers have clearly indicated the need for their employees to have appropriate social skills including the ability to work in groups. Management (something I assume all of you aspire to) are required to undertake performance appraisal of their employees. For these two reasons alone, the ability to work in groups is a skill the University encourages students to develop. In working in groups there are a number of aspects that need to be managed including: * Identify members of the group. This should be done keeping in mind the skills required to do the assignment as well as your peers’ attitude towards their academic work and their grade expectations; * Elect a leader of the group; * Identify the topic or task to be undertaken; * Allocate the work to be undertaken e. g. topics to be covered, research to be done; * You must set time frames (deadlines) for when the work is to be done and diarise the dates of regular meetings e. g. after every lecture in that subject you should schedule a meeting; * Some people are free-riders – they want the benefit of the group mark but will only put in as little effort as possible. This can be managed by using the Appendices 1 and 2 that follow. Every time (weekly) a meeting is held you should complete Appendix 2 for each group member. This should be kept in a file and submitted weekly together with the minutes of the meeting and any other supporting documentation from that week. * Appendix 2 should also include any emails confirming allocation of work, requests for work to be done by individuals (and was expected of them), identification of any issues and how they were resolved or suggestion son how to resolve them. Essentially you are to document the process so that the full picture can be presented and the results you award can be justified. * Appendix 1 is only completed at the end when you submit your assignment; * Some students may regard this as onerous, but if you do this it allows you to develop workplace skills, leadership skills and also protects those ‘workers’ from the ‘free-riders’. Also include any emails confirming issues, allocating work and requesting people to do what was expected of them i. e. document the process so that the full picture can be presented and the result you come to can be justified. This would be what would occur in any business and the minutes of the meetings are regarded as legal documentation and accepted as such in court cases. The mark you will be allocated will be the proportion of the lecturer’s mark that your colleagues attribute to you based on your contribution. If there are any differences of opinion then the lecturer’s decision will be final, based on the documentation that is presented to him/her. The next two pages provide you with an example of how to use the Appendices; then two blank forms are provided for your use. EXAMPLE: Three members in the group David, John and Mary APPENDIX 1: (Submitted at the end of he process with the assignment) Surname| Initials| Percentage of lecturer allocated group mark you think you should get based on your contribution to the group project| % of allocated group mark you thinkJohnshould get based on their contribution to the group project| % of allocated group mark you thinkMaryshould get based on their contribution to the group project| % of allocated group mark you thinkXXXXshould get based on their contribution to the group project| Assessor’sSignature| | | | | | | | Insert the names of the various group members in here| | Insert the percentage of the mark you think you should be receiving. If you feel your contribution deserves the full mark then insert 100%| An average of the marks you have allocated over the weeks will assist you in allocating a mark here for John| An average of the marks you have allocated over the weeks will assist you in allocating a mark here for Mary| | | Smith | David| 100%| Average of weekly mark out of 50 x 2 | Average of weekly mark out of 50 x 2| | David’s signature here| Jones| John| 100%| Average of weekly mark out of 50 x 2 | Average of weekly mark out of 50 x 2| | John’s signature here| Ngcobo| Mary| 100%| Average of weekly mark out of 50 x 2 | Average of weekly mark out of 50 x 2| | Mary’s signature here| As a means of assisting you in completing the above table, the following table must be completed and where appropriate documentary evidence can be submitted including any written statements. David, John and Mary will all complete and sign this form so everything is transparent. EXAMPLE: APPENDIX 2: (Submitted weekly)NAME OF MEMBER BEING ASSESED JOHN| | GROUP CRITERIA REVIEWED| SCORING| | | (5)Always| (4)| (3)Freq1| (1)| (0)Hardly| Score| 1. | Communication:-| | | | | | 4| 2. | Participation:-(attendance and active: meetings, tasks, workloads, discussions †¦)| | | | | | 1| | | (10)High| (8)| (6)Adeq2| (3)| (0)Lack of| | 3. | Cooperation Shared Responsibilities:-(decisions, milestones, goals, tasks work processes – added to group cohesiveness †¦)| | | | | | 6| 4. Commitment:-(effort to: meet deadlines goals, be flexible, achieve standards of work agreed †¦ ) | | | | | | 6| 5. | Contributions:-(quantity of : work, discussion, dialogue, planning and organising â € ¦) | | | | | | 6| 6. | Performance:-(quality of: work submitted, reliability †¦)| | | | | | 4. 5| Total Score (Max 50):| 27. 5| 1. Frequently 2. Adequate ————————————————- Comments: ————————————————- John has †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ ————————————————- ————————————————- If the person being assessed (John in this case) does not agree with this peer evaluation – that is fine – because this is his peers’ assessment of him. If this is the case, you must address this issue with the lecturer immediately. ————————————————- Please note: between scores can be awarded by marking two juxtapose circles and thus averaging their score: Becomes (10+8)/2 = 9 The score tally will be used to weight this members assignment grading and adjust accordingly. I attest, as being the member assessed here, that I have seen and read this assessment: Signature: John to sign here Dated: / /2011 oup Members: The following are the individual members who ‘group assessed this member’s performance. N David signs here________ Signature: Mary signs here APPENDIX 1: (Submitted at the end of the process with the assignment)SUBJECT: Surname| Initials| Percentage of lecturer allocated group mark you think you should get based on your contribution to the group project| % of allocated group mark you think_______________should get based on their contribution to the group project| % of allocated group mark you think________________should get based on their contribution to the group project| % of allocated group mark you think_______________should get based on their contribution to the group project| Assessor’sSignature| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | As a means of assisting you in completing the above table, the following table must be completed and where appropriate documentary evidence can be submitted including any written statements. APPENDIX 2: (Submitted weekly)SUBJECT: NAME OF MEMBER BEING ASSESED| | GROUP CRITERIA REVIEWED| SCORING| | | (5)Always| (4)| (3)Freq1| (1)| (0)Hardly| Score| 1. | Communication:-| | | | | | | 2. | Participation:-(attendance and active: meetings, tasks, workloads, discussions †¦)| | | | | | | | | (10)High| (8)| (6)Adeq2| (3)| (0)Lack of| | 3. | Cooperation Shared Responsibilities:-(decisions, milestones, goals, tasks work processes – added to group cohesiveness †¦)| | | | | | | 4. Commitment:-(effort to: meet deadlines goals, be flexible, achieve standards of work agreed,†¦. ) | | | | | | | 5. | Contributions:-(quantity of : work, discussion, dialogue, planning and organising †¦) | | | | | | | 6. | Performance:-(quality of: work submitted, reliability †¦)| | | | | | | Total Score (Max 50):| | 1. Frequently 2. Adequate ————————————————- Comments: ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- Please note: between scores can be awarded by marking two juxtapose circles and thus averaging their score: Becomes (10+8)/2 = 9 The score tally will be used to weight this members assignment grading and adjust accordingly. I attest, as being the member assessed here, that I have seen and read this assessment: Signature: ______________________________ Dated: / /2011 Group Members: The following are the individual members who ‘group assessed this member’s performance Name ____________________________ Signature _________________ ame ____________________________ Signature _________________ Signature ____________________________ Dated: / /2011 How to cite Finance Foundation, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Heroism Inthe Iliad Achilles Vs Hector Essay free essay sample

Heroism Inthe Iliad: Achilles Vs. Hector Essay, Research Paper Achilles vs. Hector In the Iliad, many of the male characters display epic features, consistent with the heroic warrior codification of ancient Greece. They try to win glorification in conflict, yet are frequently characterized as holding a clearly human side. They each have certain strengths and failings, which are apparent at many times throughout the struggles described in the Iliad. Prime illustrations of such characters are Achilles and Hector. These two characters have obvious differences in their attacks to suiting the heroic cast to which they both try to conform. However, despite their differences and the fact that they are contending for opposing ground forcess and run into each other with hatred in conflict, they besides have legion similar traits which logically lend themselves to a comparing between the two work forces. They both display behaviour that could be described as gallantry. The first manner in which Achilles, who fights for the Greeks, and Hector, who fights for the Trojans, act otherwise is how they approach war and the inevitable force and decease which accompany it. Although Achilles knows that he is fated to be killed in conflict, when his faithful and devoted friend Patroclus is pitilessly and dishonorably cut down in combat, he puts aside his pride and chooses to temporarily bury about his old feuds with Agamemnon that have up until now prevented him from take parting in the war. He joins the contending with a deathly and vindictive mentality that will probably play a major factor in the result of the war. Today, this lecherousness for retaliation might be considered a glowering character defect. However, this passion for requital doubtless conforms to the heroic codification of Grecian society. Meanwhile, Hector is full of indecisiveness and reluctance about whether to take portion in the war. He excessively believes that destiny has dictated that he will be killed in conflict. He spends much clip with his pleading married woman Andromache, who begs him non to travel to war, both for his interest and for his household? s. He does non desire to decease and therefore widow Andromache, go forthing her # 8220 ; at the loom of another man. # 8221 ; Indeed, when he bids farewell to his immature boy Astyanax, clothed in his reflecting war cogwheel with glittering helmet complete with plume crest ( the quintessential image of a bold Grecian soldier traveling off to conflict, which today is a symbol of bravery, courage, and true gallantry ) , Astyanax cries with fear, demoing that courage and gallantry in war can non coexist with the attention and love that a male parent shows to his boy. Therefore, while Hector is so epic is his going for the war, his human side is overshadowed b y this. Another state of affairs in which Hector and Achilles use different attacks to act as heroes is in Book Twenty-Two, the chief subdivision in which Hector and Achilles and their separate personalities and character traits interact. Hector, now brave as of all time and boldly facing his destiny, decides to stay outside the bulwarks of the bastioned metropolis, within which the remainder of his protagonists that might support him are safely unafraid. Priam, Hector? s male parent, upon seeing the progressing Achilles, implores Hector to withdraw behind the safety of the walls, but to no help. Pride and honour play a function in forestalling Hector from endorsing down. Hector? s unafraid confrontation of his fate is an highly epic action. However, so Hector flees from Achilles, behavior rather unlike that of a hero. One might deduce that now Hector? s human inherent aptitude of endurance is playing a function. This illustrates a seemingly-common struggle among characters who might be cons idered heroes: the internal competition between the heroic codification within the character and the human emotions and inherent aptitudes that sometimes present contradictory urges to the heroic codification. Each hero responds in a different mode to this struggle. Hector, in this instance, decides to respond upon his human urges and flees from Achilles, who immediately gives pursuit. After a cunning fast one by Athena which cau Ses Hector to make up ones mind to stand his land and battle, possibly the most conspicuous contradiction between a warrior? s heroic codification and the warrior? s human side is apparent. Achilles, vindictive and bloody-minded, putting to deaths Hector in a mode which, by today? s criterions, would be unnecessarily cruel and barbaric. He allows Hector to decease a slow and agonising decease, after which he unashamedly desecrates the organic structure, without caring in the least about the feelings of Hector? s household and protagonists. These actions are undeniably consistent with the heroic warrior codification of the Greeks, which puts enormous value on heroism in conflict and unmerciful requital. Nevertheless, even the most valorous and stonehearted soldier must hold a human side, which decidedly must object to the barbarian and barbarous violent death that is omnipresent in war. On the other manus, when Achilles and his soldiers get some type of obscene pleasance and hilarity from repeatedly and monstrously knifing Hector? s lifeless and bloody cadaver, another sort of human emotion is being displayed. This is the repressed choler and ill will that builds up during one? s pursuit for retaliation or merely conflict, being directed towards the most evident figure or symbol that represents the beginning of this hatred. So, it might be concluded that the heroic codification and the human emotions might non conflict with each other after all. The concluding major determination taken by a polar character in the Iliad is besides in demand of a careful analysis. When Achilles decides to return Hector? s organic structure to his male parent Priam that it might be uprightly buried, he is go againsting the unfeeling and uncompassionate heroic codification to which he before tried so difficult to conform. He has decided to move upon the nobler human quality of commiseration and understanding and another? s loss, even when the loss is that of a despised enemy. Truly, in this scenario, Priam had to merely pull on the common bond through which all worlds feel linked, for no sum of rational idea would hold swayed Achilles to do this via media of rule. Ultimately, this is an first-class manner to stop the narration of the Iliad, for it shows that Achilles, the character with which the reader most frequently identifies, has exhibited his independency from the heroic codification and that he is capable of doing determinations that have no footing in precedency, and that he is able to take his ain fate and populate his ain doctrine, and one who accomplishes this is genuinely a hero by anyone? s criterions. In decision, a careful comparing of the actions and ideas of the two characters provides the reader with a possibly unexpected penetration. It seems that while Hector is so genitive of a human side, in that he is afraid of deceasing in war, he loves his married woman and household, and does non at first want to accept his destiny, Achilles is in fact the more human 1. He uses both his homo emotions and the warrior codification that he learned since childhood suitably and in proportion, so that there is the least clash between the two and so that the resulting actions are so admirable and applaudable. He is able to build a perfect expression incorporating both the heroic codification and the human head that presents the most ideal consequence. Achilles seems to hold successfully navigated his manner through the epic patterned advance in this mode. Therefore both Hector and Achilles behave as heroes throughout the Iliad. While they both try to win glorification in war for their households, their state, and themselves, they both have certain strengths and failings in their character which dictate their really different classs of action and their ideas. They are both presented with struggles and quandary throughout the narrative, the declarations of which must be made utilizing both their intuitive human side and their aggressive heroic side, and it appears as if Achilles meets with the most success in this hard undertaking. Therefore, the heroic warrior codification and the human scruples nowadays certain contradictions to which the characters must react in order to last and in order to accomplish their ends.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

The Relation Between Abuse Neglect And Delinquency Essay Example For Students

The Relation Between Abuse Neglect And Delinquency Essay The Relation between Abuse, NeglectAndDelinquencyABSTRACTThis research paper is to make known the problems of maltreatment, and the affects the individual is made to deal with. This needs to be taken into account when there is a delinquent act performed. This is not an excuse that should be used for all delinquent acts though. Parents need to realize, they brought this child into the world and now it is there duty to raise them with proper values and morals. The child needs to be looked after, making sure there is no unnecessary harm being done to him/her. I believe that maltreatment does influence an adolescent in becoming a delinquent. The individual learns that this is acceptable behavior from the people that have the most influence in their lives. Once they realize that this is not a tolerated behavior they tend to act out in all sorts of forms, upon themselves and others. They now hold no fear in defying society. We will write a custom essay on The Relation Between Abuse Neglect And Delinquency specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now I am gathering some of my data from my own experiences (and others soon to follow) from the Perkins School (Lancaster). This school is a home for the time being for abused children and adolescents. They try to teach the individuals how society works and what is accepted and behavior adjustments. This school does not try to cure them, but to help them understand and deal with their difficulties. The remaining part of my research came from journal articles and books. In my findings, I am implying that maltreatment affects a child a great deal, most likely for a severe amount of ones life. The emotions that are built up in the child are going to cause outbursts of anger, confusion, anxiety, hostility and distrust. Depending upon the intensity and the length the maltreatment occurs for assists in explaining the consequences the individual may portray due to the maltreatment. INTRODUCTIONDo forms of abuse and neglect within the family bring about delinquency among the youth? Presumably, y es, maltreatment does have an influence upon delinquent behaviors. Maltreatment is referred to as the parental behaviors that are considered acts intended to inflict physical or psychological harm and that reflect a lack of concern for the adolescents well-being, sense of self, and social competence. (Brezina, Timothy) Maltreatment causes neurological damage, deficits in cognitive socioemotional functioning, and learning of antisocial problem solving and failure in school. Depending upon the severity and length of time of the maltreatment put onto the child determines the level of violent behavior put forth by the juvenile. Severe physical, psychological, and neurological consequences can come about because of maltreatment. These consequences may impair the childs ability to socially integrate in various ways. Within the last ten years studies have found strong associations between inadequate parental nurture, harsh or erratic discipline, and delinquent or violent behavior in childhood and adolescence. This does not mean that all delinquents were abused or neglected. Some come from what appear to be model homes. I chose this topic because of a few reasons. Recently I started working at the Perkins School, which is a residential program for abused (physically, sexually, and mentally) children. These children can no longer live with their family in the home. Some of the children do not even have people to call family or a place to call home, except Perki ns. Every one of these children have behavioral problems, some more severe than others, due to the trauma they have been through. Seeing how defenseless these children were/are to the abuse and how much it affects their behavior is mind boggling. Todays society seems out to punish the delinquents for their behavior. But does society look at the whole picture? Life at home, their morals and values learned through their parents should also be examined as well. Children are like clay, what is molded and pounded into them hardens and is that way until it is melted and restructured. People need to take into consideration how they were raised and what was taught to them their whole life. Yet, there are exceptions to this. Some children just have problems brought about on their own. LITERATURE REVIEWThe article Adolescent Maltreatment and Delinquency: The Question of Intervening Processes in the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency brings out competing expectations for the maltreat ment-delinquency association in delinquents through the use of data from a national survey. The three criminological theories: social control theory, social learning theory, and social-psychological strain theory help in accounting for this relationship. The findings discuss the need for a more general and complex understanding of the adolescent maltreatment-delinquency relationship. The quality of parent-child interactions holds significance in this study. Negative treatment toward the adolescent in the form of rejection and unjust punishment is positively related to the delinquent behavior. The forms of maltreatment that are associated with problem behavior are not limited to the extreme forms of physical abuse. Psychological assaults may be more damaging to adolescents in their social development. Names and threats actually hurt more than sticks and stones. This article went on to explain the theories that were used in assessing the relationship between the adolescent maltreatmen t and delinquency. Then the article went on to examine the intervening process. The overview of adolescent maltreatment is: it gives rise to delinquency because it erodes important sources of social control, fosters deviant socialization, and generates deep-seated feelings of anger (Brezina, Timothy). .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 , .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 .postImageUrl , .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 , .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54:hover , .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54:visited , .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54:active { border:0!important; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54:active , .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54 .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u05f27d35bf3ba6dfef667c8759b06b54:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: African American Slavery EssayIn the Social Science Journal, there is a review of the book: Child Abuse and Delinquency, which provided a connection between child abuse and the early onset of delinquent behavior. The author of the book points out that there are factors other than abuse that causes delinquency. There is not a direct relationship between the two. More indirect factors such as environmental, legal, social and psychological factors are involved. It was found that older children who experienced prior childhood abuse had significantly higher rates of delinquency. The severity of abuse did not impact or predict the rate of delinquency. Different social and cultur al experiences affected the rate of delinquency. The length of abusive experiences is very important when reinforcing and constructing social bonds. I also went through the book titled The Child Abuse-Delinquency Connection, which talked about the victim of abuse and his view. At first he thought all families were like his, he had no idea of the world beyond home and school. He started to get a clue that what was going on at home was not normal at the age of eight. He didnt really understand it, but sensed that other kids were not being treated the same way. When he did realize the maltreatment was wrong, he lashed out against everything, including himself. He does not believe the abuse was justification for the delinquent acts he engaged in. Through treatment he says he has turned his weaknesses into strengths. METHODSWhen acquiring sources for review and preparation of this paper, I went to the college library. I went to the computers in the reference section and began researching different journals I could look in. Then I found a few books that also seemed could help my research on this topic. The types of information I found in the journals were national survey data, book reviews, and basic articles about the relationship between abuse and delinquency. I also took into account the little knowledge I have learned working at the Perkins School. All of these children have behavioral problems due to maltreatment. Seeing the children struggle in trying to get through a day without a behavioral outburst of some sort is difficult to take in. These children have not had a healthy environment to grow up in and have so much anger built up inside. Certain influences bring back terrible memories, which eventually cause an emotional breakdown. SUMMARY OF FINDINGSThrough this research I have found that maltreatment affects children and their behaviors a great deal. I believe in treatment for these children, but I wish treatment was not needed. Of course this would only happen in a perfect society. Punishment is not always the correct way in intervening with delinquents. Intervening needs to start with the parents understanding on raising a child. I was pretty sure that abuse played a role in delinquent behaviors before I went into this paper. If maltreatment is what the child has grown up with and around, then this is how the child knows how to respond to situations encountered. Weaknesses I found in one of the procedures, is that the studied group was of only boys, and in another they only did a one time survey when they probably should have studied the group over a period of time. DISCUSSION or IMPLICATIONMy research comes down to maltreatment being put on a person (child or adolescent) can and does lead to delinquency. Maltreatment is not always the only cause of delinquency though. This is sometimes an excuse used in certain juvenile court cases. A question that was not answered for me involved similarities or differences among males and femal es that result in delinquency due to prior maltreatment. Future research could possibly include more diverse samples. Adolescent maltreatment has a significant and negative effect on parental attachment. The levels of parental attachment do not predict subsequent delinquency problems though. Adolescent maltreatment brings about delinquency because it consumes important sources of social control, fosters deviant socialization, and generates ingrained feelings of anger. My conclusion is formed on the basis that maltreatment leads individuals to view deviance and aggression as justifiable forms of behavior. Maltreatment generates negative affects, which pressures individuals into delinquency. The children do not always realize the abuse that is being given is wrong or that not everyone goes through this. Maltreatment has discouraging factors all around that are put upon the child and affects the thought in his or head of what is right and wrong. REFERENCESBrezina, T. (1998). Adolescent Maltreatment and Delinquency: The Question of Intervening Processes. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 35( 1) 71-100. .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 , .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 .postImageUrl , .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 , .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12:hover , .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12:visited , .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12:active { border:0!important; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12:active , .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12 .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u92f7acf32d628ae6f4dd156753913f12:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee EssayCohn, A.W. (1996). Juvenile Focus. Federal Probation. 60(4) 55-58. Goleman, D. (1995). Early Violence Leaves Its Mark on the Brain. New York Times. C1, C10. Peters, R., Mcmahon, R., (1996). Preventing Childhood Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency. Sage Publications: London. Sandberg, D, N. (1989). The Child Abuse-Delinquency Connection. Lexington Publications. Siegal, L., Senna, J. (2000). Juvenile Delinquency Theory, Practice, and Law. 7th Edition. Wadsworth. Stanley, D, L. (1998). Book Reviews. Social Science Journal. 35(3) 473-476. Widom, C, S. (1996). Childhood Abuse and Its Criminal Consequences. Society. 33(4) 47-54. BibliographyREFERENCESBrezina, T. (1998). Adolescent Maltreatment and Delinquency: The Question of Intervening Processes. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 35(1) 71-100. Cohn, A.W. (1996). Juvenile Focus. Federal Probation. 60(4) 55-58. Goleman, D. (1995). Early Violence Leaves Its Mark on the Brain. New York Times. C1, C10. Peters, R., Mcmahon, R., (1996). Preventing Childhood Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency. Sage Publications: London. Sandberg, D, N. (1989). The Child Abuse-Delinquency Connection. Lexington Publications. Siegal, L., Senna, J. (2000). Juvenile Delinquency Theory, Practice, and Law. 7th Edition. Wadsworth. Stanley, D, L. (1998). Book Reviews. Social Science Journal. 35(3) 473-476. Widom, C, S. (1996). Childhood Abuse and Its Criminal Consequences. Society. 33(4) 47-54. Social Issues Essays

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The Lead Cup Myth

The Lead Cup Myth Some time ago, a popular email hoax spread misinformation about the use of lead cups in the Middle Ages and The Bad Old Days.   Lead cups were used to drink ale or whisky. The combination would sometimes knock them out for a couple of days. Someone walking along the road would take them for dead and prepare them for burial. They were laid out on the kitchen table for a couple of days and the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up - hence the custom of holding a wake. The Facts Lead poisoning is a slow, cumulative process and not a fast-acting toxin. Furthermore, pure lead was not used to make drinking vessels. By the 1500s pewter had, at most, 30 percent lead in its makeup.1  Horn, ceramic, gold, silver, glass and even wood were all used to make cups, goblets, jugs, flagons, tankards, bowls and other items to hold liquid. In less formal situations, people would forgo individual cups and drink straight from the jug, which was usually ceramic. Those who overindulged in liquorto the point of unconsciousnessgenerally recovered within a day. The consumption of alcohol was a popular pastime, and coroners records are filled with reports of accidentsboth minor and fatalthat occurred to the inebriated. Although it was difficult for people in the 16th century to define death, proof of life could typically be determined by whether or not the person was breathing. It was never necessary to lay out hung-over carousers on the kitchen table and wait to see if they woke upespecially since poorer folk often had neither kitchens nor permanent tables. The custom of holding a wake goes back much further than the 1500s. In Britain,  wakes  appear to have origins in Celtic custom, and was a watch over the recently-deceased that may have been intended to protect his body from evil spirits. The Anglo-Saxons called it a lich-wake from the Old English lic, a corpse. When Christianity came to England, prayer was added to the vigil.2 Over time, the event took on a social character, where family and friends of the deceased would gather to bid them farewell and enjoy food and drink in the process. The Church tried to discourage this,3 but the celebration of life in the face of death is not something humans easily relinquish. Notes: 1. pewter   Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica  Accessed April 4, 2002]. 2. wake  Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica[Accessed April 13, 2002]. 3. Hanawalt, Barbara, The Ties that Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England (Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 240. The text of this document is copyright  ©2002-2015 Melissa Snell. You may download or print this document for personal or school use, as long as the URL below is included. Permission is not granted to reproduce this document on another website.